M. paratuberculosis and Parkinson’s disease
– Is this a trigger

Genetic linkage studies and genome wide analysis have provided insights into complex medical diseases. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease, an important enteric inflammatory disease mostly studied in ruminant animals. MAP is also the putative cause of Crohn’s disease. Moreover, MAP has been linked to other inflammatory diseases: sarcoidosis, Blau syndrome, autoimmune diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis and multiple sclerosis. Genetic studies reveal an association between Parkinson’s disease (PD), leprosy and Crohn’s disease and since discovered, these findings have been considered ‘‘surprising’’. Autophagy and ubiquitin–proteosome systems are cellular systems that both fight intracellular pathogens (xenophagy) and maintain cellular protein quality control.


~ Coad Thomas Dow.
McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 9431 WIMR, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, United States
Chippewa Valley Eye Clinic, 2715 Damon Street, Eau Claire, WI 54701, United States
Article history:
Received 14 July 2014
Accepted 30 September 2014


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